The most common pathologies of vision that are associated with a violation of refraction due to the irregular shape of the cornea are myopia and farsightedness.
Depending on the characteristics of the patient’s visual system, his age and the presence of concomitant pathologies, the most effective and safe method of vision correction is selected: using glasses or lenses, hardware techniques for children, laser correction, implantation of phakic or intraocular lenses. The method of correction is selected after a detailed examination and diagnosis.
Farsightedness and myopia: features of diseases
The human eye is designed in such a way that during visual function, light rays pass through the cornea and lens, are refracted and focused precisely on the retina to further form a visual image. Depending on whether the patient is farsighted or nearsighted, the focus shifts and the image does not fall on the retina.
With farsightedness, light rays are refracted so that they fall behind the surface of the retina. As a result, the patient sees objects located near them indistinct.
how to see with farsightedness
With myopia, light rays do not reach the retina when refracted, so the patient does not see well into the distance.
how to see with myopia
If vision correction is required, myopia and hyperopia are most often eliminated with the help of modern laser techniques that allow you to quickly and accurately eliminate the pathology. With a strong degree of hypermetropia and myopia, phakic or intraocular lenses are used. The method of correction is selected individually, so it is mandatory for each patient to undergo a comprehensive examination.
What correction methods are used
Correction of myopia and hypermetropia with glasses or contact lenses has many disadvantages for the patient, which creates inconvenience while wearing optics. If there are no contraindications, surgical correction methods are the best solution for eliminating refractive errors. Modern operations are performed on an outpatient basis, and the postoperative period is reduced to a minimum, which allows patients to do their usual things the next day, observing minor physical restrictions for a short time.
Correct vision in myopia and hyperopia can be one of the most effective methods:
laser correction for patients aged 18 to 45 years;
with high degrees of refractive error, implantation of phakic lenses located between the cornea and the lens;
implantation of intraocular lenses with optical properties in lens pathologies;
hardware techniques for children.
To select the optimal method of correction, a comprehensive examination is first performed. Based on the data obtained, the doctor selects the appropriate treatment method that will provide the most accurate result.
Age-related refractive changes
After 45 years, a gradual compaction of the lens develops due to age-related changes in the body. A decrease in the elasticity of the lens worsens its accommodative ability, so age-related farsightedness occurs and a person is forced to use glasses for reading and manual work near. Over time, presbyopia tends to progress, so vision gradually decreases, which requires a regular change of glasses with an increase in the optical properties of the lenses.
Among patients with myopia, it is widely believed that with the development of age-related hypermetropia, vision can “level out”. Refraction is not amenable to mathematical rules, so plus or minus in the case of the visual system does not work. A nearsighted person with age will still be bad at seeing into the distance, only in addition, separate glasses will be required for reading. Thus, a vision correction operation performed in his youth will help to avoid wearing several pairs of glasses in the future. If the patient had myopia before the correction, then with age he will need only one glasses to correct presbyopia. If the correction is not done, then gradually after 50 years, three pairs of glasses may be required: for distance, nearness and for working at the computer.
To do or not to do laser correction, each patient makes a decision on their own. In the absence of contraindications, laser correction is the best solution for ensuring high-quality vision and getting rid of glasses. The postoperative period is minimally reduced due to the use of the latest technologies. Within a few weeks after the correction, all restrictions are lifted, and the patient returns to a full life without any restrictions on activity.