Julie B Shelton

Vascular diseases of the eye membrane, treatment methods

The eyes are one of the most important organs in the human body. It is with the help of them that a person can see the world, consider bright details and leave in memory a clear picture corresponding to reality. Healthy blood circulation is essential for proper eye function. In violation of the functions of blood circulation in humans often develop vascular diseases of the eye requiring treatment.
What is vascular disease of the eye?

Failures in the human body are not uncommon. With age, people stop paying attention to some symptoms and diseases, letting everything take its course. In the absence of proper attention to their health, minor ailments often develop into serious complications. The eyes are called a very fragile organ, easily influenced by negative environmental factors, but problems can also begin from the inside.

Vascular eye diseases are a common problem in ophthalmology. They are manifested in complete or partial obstruction of blood vessels and, as a result, in violation of the movement of blood. Improper blood circulation is very dangerous for vision, because almost all the impact is taken by the light-sensitive layer of the retina. Thus, oxygen starvation of the retina can worsen vision and even deprive a person of the ability to see.

Disorders can occur both in the venous vessels and in the arterial ones. The arteries are responsible for the flow of blood, and the veins for its discharge. The most dangerous are disorders in the arterial vessels, since with a lack of blood, the eye loses the ability to see in just a few minutes. This leads to retinal infarction, which requires immediate treatment. To save your vision, you need to act quickly. Ophthalmologists inject the patient with a special drug that can immediately increase the patency of blood in the vessels.
Types of vascular eye diseases

All diseases of the eye vessels begin with a local disturbance in the movement of blood, obstruction and oxygen starvation. Such disorders can bring various consequences for the body. The following are the diseases that occur most frequently in ophthalmology patients.

Retinal edema

The disease, which at the same time is a symptom for such ailments as diabetes, vascular disease and inflammatory processes, is dangerous by the accumulation of fluid and protein compounds in the retina.

Retinal edema

Retinitis as an inflammatory disease of the retina

Retinitis is an inflammatory process localized in the retina. Retinitis occurs due to an infection or an allergen that causes a strong reaction in the body. Inflammation can be either unilateral or develop on both sides. Typical symptoms, as for many other diseases, are loss of visual acuity, redness, pain. Treatment is carried out under the supervision of a specialist with specially selected medications.

Retinitis

Diabetic retinopathy

Diabetes mellitus is accompanied by a violation of vascular patency not only in the body, but also in the visual organs. The eyes stop receiving enough oxygen and other substances they need, and then diabetic retinopathy develops.

Depending on the characteristics of the body, the disease can manifest itself 5-10 years after the onset of diabetes mellitus. The type of diabetes affects the course of retinopathy. The most dangerous is the first type or insulin-dependent, since with this diagnosis, retinopathy has a rapid and rapid nature, often leading to complications. If the formation of scars on the vitreous body occurs quickly, retinal detachment may occur with complete loss of the ability to see.

In the second type, also insulin-dependent, complications can be reflected in the deterioration of visual acuity, since the disease is localized in the center of the retina.

Diabetic retinopathy

Angiopathy of the retina

Angiopathy is called one of the most insidious diseases. It acts entirely on the vessels, causing a spasm, narrowing them and changing their shape to a more sinuous one, thereby making it even more difficult for the blood to pass through them. This change can occur due to other diseases-diabetes, osteochondrosis, hypertension and various eye injuries.

Angiopathy of the retina

Occlusion of the central retinal artery

Occlusion of the central artery leads to a sharp loss of vision. The disease does not distinguish between age, so it is characteristic of both the elderly and very young people. As a rule, although the occlusion is sudden, it can be distinguished by the symptoms. The main sign of the onset of the disease is repeated short-term loss of vision.

Occlusion of the central artery requires mandatory treatment, otherwise the patient will lose his vision without the possibility of restoring it. There is also a disease due to atherosclerosis, hypertension and rheumatism.

Occlusion of the central retinal artery

Occlusion of the central retinal vein

Typical symptoms of occlusion of the central vein ophthalmologists call spot hemorrhages over the entire area of the retina. The small veins become very prominent and sinuous. With occlusion of the central vein, the outflow of blood becomes impossible, so it is concentrated in one place, threatening the patient with partial loss of vision. The disease also requires timely treatment and recovery.

Occlusion of the central retinal vein
Causes of vascular eye diseases

There are many reasons for blockage of blood vessels. In addition, sometimes they can come together and have an even greater impact on the health of the eyes. Among the most common factors in the development of vascular diseases are:

diabetes mellitus (more often insulin-dependent);
increased blood pressure;
taking medications and dietary supplements that thicken the blood (diuretics, hormonal contraceptives);
leukemia;
atherosclerosis;
rheumatism;
glaucoma;
hypertension.

Problems with blood circulation begin, first of all, when it thickens. The main task of an ophthalmologist in the treatment of vascular diseases of the eyes is to increase the patency of blood vessels and blood flow. For this purpose, medication and treatment with special devices are prescribed.
The symptoms of vascular diseases of the eye

Symptoms will help to recognize the beginning of the disease in time, but only a doctor can make an accurate diagnosis and prescribe the right solution. If you have the following symptoms, you should seek help from a specialist as soon as possible, because the earlier treatment begins, the less damage the disease will cause to your health:

the decrease in visual acuity;
partial loss of vision;
narrowing the radius of vision coverage;
dropping some objects;
burning and pain in the eyes;
redness of the eye shell;
the feeling of sand or a foreign object in the eyes in its actual absence.

Symptoms of eye diseases are quite limited in their number, so they allow you to recreate only the overall picture of what is happening. Accurate conclusions can only be identified by an ophthalmologist. Self-medication is extremely dangerous, as there is an even greater risk of worsening the current situation.
How to diagnose vascular diseases of the eye?

Early diagnosis of diseases allows you to prevent the development of complications, protecting the patient from such consequences as complete or partial loss of vision, deterioration of sharpness and clarity of vision. The examination is carried out before the appointment of treatment to see the full picture of the disease and take into account all its features. The table below presents the modern methods of diagnosis of vascular diseases of the eye.

The diagnostic method
Description
Equipment
Ophthalmoscopy
The fundus, retina and vascular membrane can be examined. With the help of an ophthalmoscope, a specialist conducts an examination. The light beam allows you to examine the source of the problem.
Ophthalmoscope
Fluorescent angiography
A contrast fluid is injected into the vascular system (usually into a vein), which quickly spreads through the arteries and vessels, allowing you to consider the patency of the retinal vessels.
Contrast fluid
X-ray equipment (video and camera)
Doppler
With the help of ultrasound, the ophthalmologist observes the process of blood flow. The method allows you to see the speed and degree of blood circulation in the retina.
Ultrasound
Rheography
The rheograph determines the volume of blood that has time to pass into the eyeball for a certain period of time. The rheograph
The visual acuity testing
Allows you to set the degree of visual acuity, to identify violations in vision. Tables

Only after a preliminary examination, a specialist can determine the diagnosis and prescribe a suitable treatment for the patient.
Treatment of vascular diseases

Treatment of vascular diseases is necessary, and only a doctor can prescribe it. Self-treatment in the question of vascular diseases of the eyes is extremely dangerous, since the organ of vision is fragile and sensitive. As a rule, in case of circulatory disorders in the retina, medication is prescribed with the help of:

Eye drops. They eliminate inflammation and inhibit the development of infection.
Ointments for the eyes. Relieves symptoms, has a local soothing and anti-inflammatory effect.
Tablets. They help to improve blood flow and increase the patency of retinal vessels, as well as prevent the occurrence of thrombosis.

In addition, treatment can be surgical if drug therapy has not shown proper results. Laser therapy can also be used. It refers to a new and progressive method of treating vascular eye diseases. The procedure takes place with the use of anesthesia, and the laser beam affects exactly those areas of the vessels on which defects are noticed.
Prevention

Following simple rules will help to avoid the development of vascular diseases and maintain eye health:

regular visit to an ophthalmologist (at least 1 time per year);
taking vitamins for eye health;
charging for the eyes (especially when working at the computer for a long time);
availability of greens, fresh vegetables and fruits in the daily menu.

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